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In addition, these results allow the development of simulation models for biomass supply based on discrete-event simulation or static simulation approaches Asikainen , Asikainen Therefore such data is needed to develop vehicle routing algorithm or verify respectively improve already existing models in the timber transport sector especially for minimizing driving times and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The study results were also used in the vehicle routing analysis from Oberscheider et al. Regarding the productivity of the analyzed transport system, the average moisture content of the chipped material was If the material was stored longer, the moisture content would decrease and the transport capacity could increase. Thus, the transport costs could be reduced easily. In the future, FMS-protocols will become easier to handle in different truck models.

In addition, new machinery enables the availability of digital data for monitoring machine activity based on logistic process analysis e. Furthermore, the use of software applications must become easier to use. Interfaces between already existing systems, such as book-keeping or enterprise resource planning systems, are necessary to support the implementation of fleet management systems. Nevertheless, detailed process analysis requires more detailed data collection with additional effort by the drivers. Replacing an on-site time study with skilled scientists by using a fleet management system with automated analysis will be still difficult to conduct.

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Authors want to thank the entrepreneur for enabling data recording and the Austrian Research Promotion Agency FFG for funding the project. Asikainen A. Discrete-event simulation of mechanized wood-harvesting systems. Simulation of stum crushing and truck transport of chips. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research — Erber G. Predicting moisture content in a pine logwood pile for energy purposes. Silva Fennica 46 4 : — Analyzing time and fuel consumption in road transport of round wood with an onboard fleet manager. European Journal of Forest Research 2 : — Kanzian C.

Regional energy wood logistics — Optimizing local fuel supply.

Silva Fennica — Lindholm E. Energy requirement and environmental impact in timber transport. Analysing transport costs of Danish forest wood chip resources by means of continuous cost surfaces. Biomass and Bioenergy — Nurmi J. The characteristics of whole-tree fuel stocks from silvicultural cleanings and thinnings.

Biomass and Bioenergy 31 6 : — Oberscheider M. Minimizing driving times and greenhouse gas emissions in timber transport with a near-exact solution approach. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. Energy-economical utilization of wood and bork as fuel — definitions and properties.

Chipped wood for energetic purposes — requirements and test specifications. Sikanen L. Transport control of forest fuels by fleet manager, mobile terminals and GPS.

Identification of free and bound water content in wood by means of NMR relaxometry

Spinelli R. A tool for productivity and cost forecasting of decentralised wood chipping. Forest Policy and Economics — Analyzing and estimating delays in wood chipping operations. Biomass and Bioenergy Performance and energy efficiency of alternative comminution principles: chipping versus grinding. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 27 4 : — Stampfer K. Development of a model for eco-efficient supply of woody biomass. Windisch J.

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Supply chain management applications for forest fuel procurement — cost or benefit? Silva Fennica 44 5 : — Table 1. Machine concept chipper truck and its a.. Table 2.

Transport Processes in Wood

Transporting vehicle attributes. Fleet management equipment with the comp.. Flow-process-chart for semi-automated pr.. Table 3. Average load data [green-tons] of parti.. Table 4. Average load data [odt] of the particip.. Table 5.


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Time consumption [min] of the recorded.. Table 6. Time consumption [min] for scaling and.. Table 7. Process time with a running engine duri.. Table 8. Chipper productivity, load data, distan.. Table 9. Table Fuel consumption based on the analyzed.. Fuel consumption of the chipper.

Effects of moisture content on transport..

N2 - The macroscopic formulation of moisture transport in wood below the fiber saturation point has motivated many research efforts in the past two decades. Many experiments demonstrated the difference in steady state and transient moisture transport and the inadequacy of models derived for steady state transport when used to describe transient processes. A suitable modeling approach was found by distinguishing between the two phases of water in wood, namely bound water in the cell walls and water vapor in the lumens. Such models are capable of reproducing transient moisture transport processes, but the physical origin of the coupling between the two phases remains unclear.

In this paper, the physical background on the microscale is clarified and transformed into a comprehensive macroscopic description, ending up with a dual-scale model comprising three coupled differential equations for bound water, water vapor, and internal energy, as well as a simplified microscale model for determination of the coupling term.

AB - The macroscopic formulation of moisture transport in wood below the fiber saturation point has motivated many research efforts in the past two decades. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, Wood-water relations. New York, Springer-Verlag, The swelling and shrinking of wood a practical technology primer.

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Madison, Forest Products Society, Wood handbook: wood as an engeneering material. Madison: FPL. Madrid, Ediciones Mundi-Prensa, Floresta, Curitiba, v. Industrial applications and opportunities for nondestructive evaluation of structural wood members. Scientia Forestalis, Piracicaba, v. Review of wood drying research in Brazil: