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And ahs. But we have found that they can distract, and even even within a language, transliteration systems change. In time, as U. Beijing and Mao Zedong. The syllable in capital letters is the not in M-W However, sometimes we overrule accented one; note, however, that Chinese and other Merriam-Webster for a compelling reason. For example, languages do not necessarily stress syllables as is done historian Ross Dunn—who wrote the Berkshire Ency- in English. This guide is also September Version 1. It will be updated The five-page How To Spell It and How To Say It may regularly, and readers are encouraged to download be copied and distributed free of charge in its the current version and to send us suggestions for entirety for noncommercial educational use only.

No more than thirty copies can be distributed at a Berkshire welcomes questions, too, from teachers time without written permission. It may not be and students. Even when historical statistics look rela- Global Migration tively complete, discrepancies in numbers at ports of departure and arrival demonstrate the unreliability of in Modern Times some of those numbers.

The majority of long-distance migration from to. M igration to nearly all parts of the world increased steadily from the early nineteenth century until , with brief fluctuations due to economic depres- can be divided into three main systems. See table 1. The first is migration from Europe to the Americas. The Great Depression and the into a region centered on Southeast Asia but extending establishment of national migration restrictions slowed across the Indian Ocean and South Pacific.

Smaller flows these flows in the middle of the twentieth century, but by also came from other regions, crossed these systems, and the s migration had once again become as signifi- moved into and out of places at the interstices of these cant in proportion to the global population as in the systems, such as Africa and western Asia. The third is years surrounding World War I. This expanding migra- migration from Russia, northern China, and Korea into tion was part of the industrial transformation of the the broad expanse of northern Asia stretching from the world, with migrants carried by faster modern trans- Russian steppes to Siberia, Manchuria, and Japan.

Much of this migration was short-distance and tem- portion of foreign-born residents , Brazil, and, to a lesser porary migration to nearby cities, towns, and agricultural extent, Cuba. Over half of the emigration before the s areas.

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, Second Edition (Volume 5)

The massive long-distance and transoceanic migra- was from the British Isles, with much of the remainder tion over this period, however, was unprecedented in from northwest Europe. After the s, regions of world history. The fields of Siberia and North America, intensive emigration spread south and east as far as Por- the mines of South Africa and Manchuria, the rice pad- tugal, Russia, and Syria. Up to 2. Half of this pots of Singapore and Shanghai, the service jobs of migration took place before , after which the New York and Bombay, and the oil fields of Qatar and decline of indentured labor recruitment and the rise of Venezuela have all drawn migrants as key nodes in an anti-Asian immigration laws began to take effect.

Less than 10 percent of lent data for estimates of transoceanic migration. This material allows us to better labor recruitment systems. Over two million Indians construct estimates for long-distance than for short- also migrated as merchants or other travelers not in- distance migration. But all estimates must still be treated tending to work as laborers. Table 1. Americas Europe 55—58 million 2.

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India after and the abolishment of indenture in Railroad construction in the s further strengthened Nearly 4 million Indians traveled to Malaysia, over the migrant flows. Between 28 and 33 million Chinese 8 million to Ceylon, over 15 million to Burma, and migrated into Manchuria and Siberia, along with nearly about a million to Africa, other parts of Southeast Asia, 2 million Koreans and over a half million Japanese.

Another two and a half million Koreans migrated to The vast majority of Chinese migrants came from the Japan, especially in the s. At least 13 million Rus- southern provinces of Guangdong and Fujian. Fewer sians moved into Central Asia and Siberia over this period. Many more Chinese worked for Chinese ous migrants while others send hardly any at all. Up to 11 million tems are broadly comparable. At first glance 19 million Chinese traveled from China to the Straits Settlements, overseas emigrants from China or 29 million from India although more than a third of these transshipped to the seems like a drop in the bucket compared to the several Dutch Indies, Borneo, Burma, and places farther west.

But if we look at regions of com- land, between 2 and 3 million to French Indochina, over parable size, the rates are very similar. Some of the peak a million to the Dutch Indies for a total of over 4 mil- recorded emigration rates ever were an annual average of lion if transshipments from Singapore are included , 22 emigrants per 1, population in Ireland during the fewer than a million to the Philippines, and over half a famine of to , or 18 per 1, from Iceland million to Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and other in the s.

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The dissolution of years of the s. Hebei and Shandong provinces the Ottoman empire and wars with Russia led to an sources of migration to Manchuria had a rate of 10 per exchange of 4 to 6 million people, with Muslims moving 1, during that same decade. Around a Short-Distance Migration million Armenians were expelled from Turkey to points Before World War II around the world, and nearly , Jews moved to The three long-distance systems described above account Palestine in the early twentieth century.

The massive for only a portion of global migration. Many migrants movement of refugees would extend to other parts of also moved through Africa and western Asia, and within Europe in the wake of World War I and the Russian rev- the main sending and receiving regions. The majority of olution, including the movement of 3 million Russians, global migration was probably to nearby cities, towns, Poles, and Germans out of the Soviet Union. This Migration also took place within the receiving regions migration is more difficult to count, but general patterns of the long-distance systems.

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The transatlantic migrations can be identified. The immigrants included over of Native Americans, and the migration of over 2.

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The indus- Indians, and Chinese throughout the continent. The end trial centers of the northeastern U. Labor migration to plantations and mines in south- peoples moved to coastal plantations and cities, and over ern and central Africa increased through the late , Caribbean people migrated to plantations in nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as did movement to Central America and Cuba, to the Panama Canal Zone, agricultural areas and coastal cities in western and east- and the United States. In Southeast Asia and the South ern Africa. Millions of people took part in these move- Pacific, up to , Javanese traveled to plantations in ments, some of whom were coerced and many of whom Sumatra and the Southeast Asian mainland, and over went to work for European enterprises, but many of , Melanesians and Micronesians worked on plan- whom also found independent occupations.

Projects tations and as seamen throughout the region. In Russia, migrants moved into the grow- rates in the world. In a different type of migration, over ing cities and southern agricultural areas. Within India 3 million people took part in the pilgrimage to Mecca they moved to tea plantations in the south and northeast, from to Each of these systems involved at cion,government promotion,and relatively strong econo- least 20 million journeys. All three major des- was primarily undertaken by merchants, slaves, and a tination regions experienced massive population growth, comparatively small flow of settlers, agriculturists, and with their populations increasing by factors of 4 to 5.

The rise of a from to See table 2.

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These rates were over global economy centered on European, North American, twice that for world population as a whole. Growth rates and Japanese industrialization was the context for in- in the sending regions were lower than world population creased long-distance migration of settlers and workers.

The decline of the transatlantic slave trade after the s led to the rise of indentured Migration Since Asian migration in the s.

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Indentured labor helped World War II to establish new migration flows, but it accounted for no International migration remained relatively low in the more than 4 or 5 million migrants, and reached its zenith decades immediately following World War II, with the in the s, then declining just as Asian migration be- exception of massive refugee flows in Europe and South gan to boom.

Asia that resulted from the new European political map Migration in each major long-distance system ebbed after World War II, the creation of Israel, and the parti- and flowed along with business cycles but followed the tion of India. Refugees have remained an important same broad pattern of gradual increase throughout the source of migration to this day, especially in Africa, Cen- nineteenth century followed by a major burst in the early tral America, and Southeast Asia.

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  6. Rural-to-urban migra- twentieth century. Total migration in the three major tion also grew increasingly important in Asian, African, long-distance systems increased from about , a and Latin American countries over the second half of the year in the s and s to a plateau of nearly 1. International migration to industrial- million a year in the s and s. It then boomed to ized countries expanded steadily after the s, due to an average of 3.